In the society the expression "green" economy has become increasingly used. After the past "RIO + 20" Summit the President of our state predetermined this notion as a high priority as one of the primary factors on the path of the country's further development. But what is meant by this concept and what are its main directions we will try to find out in more detail in this article.
What is a green economy?
At present society understands the essence of the expression "green" economy differently. Some believe that these are new branches of the economy that will improve the country's nature. Others understand this expression as a new technology, a sort of ecosystem that is designed to help and benefit nature. Still others believe that this is a transition to a new stage of development, its goal is to create environmentally friendly products.
All these approaches to the definition of the concept are very close to the meaning of the expression. The "green" economy is an economy aimed at preserving the well-being of society, through the efficient use of natural resources and also ensuring the return of end-use products to the production cycle. First of all the "green" economy is aimed at economical consumption of those resources that are currently subject to depletion (minerals - oil, gas) and rational use of inexhaustible resources.
The green economy is based on pure or "green" technologies. According to experts, the development of a "green" economy will avoid our country's environmental crisis which affected by its scale already many post-industrial countries.
The concept of development of the "green" economy in Kazakhstan
After the "RIO + 20" Summit, the forces of the Kazakhstani society are directed to implementing the strategy for the transition to a "green" economy. At the initiative of President N.A. Nazarbaev developed a Concept for the transition to a "green" economy. First of all the Concept contains a list of priority tasks, mainly aimed at reforming certain sectors of the economy.
As part of the transition to a green economy is expected:
• increase the efficiency of resources;
• Improve Kazakhstan's infrastructure;
• improve the well-being of the population;
The implementation of the Concept is planned in three stages:
• the first stage - 2013-2020 - optimizing the use of resources and increasing the effectiveness of environmental protection activities, as well as creating a "green" infrastructure;
• the second stage - 2020-2030. - rational use of natural resources, introduction of renewable energy based on high technology;
• the third stage - 2030-2050. - the transition of the national economy to the principles of the "third industrial revolution", which is based on the use of natural resources in the case of their renewability.
Seven key directions for the development of the green economy
The first direction is the introduction of renewable energy sources.
The issue of further conservation of mineral resources is gaining immense proportions. Our state is recognized as a country with very rich natural resources. Oil, gas - all over the world are classified as one of the largest energy resources, but even they are exhausted in their time and therefore it is necessary to find new resources for life. At the same time, the fact that Kazakhstan has a good ecosystem, soil, water and forest, significantly increases its position in front of other countries.
The second direction is energy efficiency in housing and communal services.
Due to the fact that a significant part of the urban housing stock was built in the post-Soviet period, most residential complexes are equipped with inefficient thermal insulation structures and heat supply systems, which leads to significant heat losses. At present, there are energy service companies operating in Kazakhstan to carry out activities in the field of troubleshooting of heat supply devices.
The third direction is an organic farming in agriculture
First of all, this type of referral considers the rejection of synthetic fertilizer products (pesticides), various feed additives. We are talking about the use of organic fertilizers to ensure the yield, growth of cultivated plants. "Greening" of agriculture will provide food for the population without harming natural resources. Kazakhstan plans to act in the following areas:
• management of soil fertility;
• effective use of water;
• management of plant and animal health;
• Farm mechanization.
The fourth direction is the improvement of the waste management system
The problem of waste management has become especially popular. More and more often you meet dirty streets, dumps and lack of any control over what is happening. In connection with the existing circumstances it was proposed to use waste as a secondary product of the production cycle. So, for example, the technology of complex processing of solid domestic waste and obtaining alternative fuels is already being implemented in Almaty.
The fifth direction is the improvement of the water management system
Water remains a key natural component of ensuring the existence of mankind and the integrity of ecosystems. In this regard, the rational use of water resources remains a problem that is gaining enormous proportions.
The sixth direction is the development of "clean" transport
Most of the traffic in Kazakhstan is carried out on diesel / gasoline. At present, the majority of transportation is carried out on the basis of gasoline (diesel). First of all, this contributes to high greenhouse gas emissions.
The seventh direction is the conservation and effective management of ecosystems
The activities in this direction are mainly aimed at preserving the unique natural wealth of our country.
"Green" economy will bring advantages for the country
The transition to a "green" economy is becoming increasingly popular and is of great interest. The "green" economy primarily contributes to economic progress and will ensure:
• growth of the gross domestic product;
• increase in the country's income;
• creation of jobs for the population, while reducing the unemployment rate in the country.
At the same time, the transition to a "green" economy reduces the risks from global threats, such as climate change, depletion of minerals and water scarcity.
As part of the green economy development program, Kazakhstan plans to invest in 10 key sectors of the economy:
- • Housing and utilities;
- • Power engineering;
- • fishing;
- • forestry;
- • industry;
- • tourism;
- • transport;
- • waste management and recycling;
- • Water resources management.
Institutions of transition to a green economy
The transition to a "green" economy in the first place will be marked by the creation of relevant organizations.
Academy of "green" business
The purpose of the Academy will be the development of programs, projects and training courses for the sustainable development of policies in the field of saving natural and other resources. The Academy plans to hold online seminars, the use of innovative methods. Online seminars of the Academy are aimed at a dialogue between experts / specialists in the field of environmental protection, as well as building a strategy of "green" growth. An extensive library of courses and the latest electronic resources on green growth and sustainable development will be available to all students.
The Green Business Academy will help prepare a more experienced professional workforce that will be able to implement sustainable development strategies, especially in the field of integrated use of natural resources, practices more committed to social needs and problems.
The Green Bridge Partnership Program
The program assumes joint actions of states, international, scientific organizations and businesses to create or develop new branches of green business by implementing investment projects, reforming policies.
The objective of the program is to link up many processes and create a new level of partnership - not only between countries and regions, but also between the state and business.
The essence of the Green Bridge is the greening of the economy, through the development of new branches of green business and the creation of a long-term and stable basis for it.
The Green Bridge offers a new payment mechanism for the latest green technologies - creating an enabling environment for green businesses.
Let's keep nature together
While our state is actively pursuing a policy of transition to a green economy, as part of this process, we can now begin to take steps to create a "clean" future. And although many of us think that their contribution does not mean anything at all, this does not apply to the protection of nature. Each of us can contribute to the protection of the environment. And do not think that your contribution will be a drop in the sea. Every day we can make the world cleaner and better. So, we made a short list of recommendations as soon as possible to create a "clean" future.
1. Turn off the equipment! For example, turn off the light in the room if you are not in it, and do not leave the appliances included in the outlet if you are not using them at the moment.
2. Give up synthetic tools / tools! We are all used to washing dishes using new cleaning products with the use of various chemicals. It is these tools that primarily harm both the environment and the person himself.
3. Take care of energy. Already, you can buy and install solar panels in the house, and also use energy-saving light bulbs.
4. Start sorting the trash! One of the important directions for the transition of the "green" economy is the utilization of waste, as well as their use as a secondary product.
5. Use electronic media! The use of paper requires a large number of cut down trees.
6. Buy organic products! This will significantly improve the health of each of us, as well as help to create an environmentally friendly agriculture
7. Walk more on foot! Exhaust gases are one of the most significant sources of pollution of nature. It is in the power of each of us to make sure that these emissions are at least a little less.
8. Stop poaching! From the illegal actions of people, the rarest species of plants and animals at the moment just disappeared. Save the uniqueness of nature - the task of each.
9. Protect the environment! Elementary observance of the rules, such as not to leave garbage behind, not to break branches of trees or not to tear off arms of flowers, significantly affects the state of nature.